Recent study attracting press attention says students use the app to make friends. Some experts doubt it. But is it possible students are also using Tinder not for sex but to find friends? More than half of college students in a recent survey said they were using Tinder and other dating apps but mostly Tinder to find friends, not hookups. Only 20 percent of the students surveyed by campus jobs start-up WayUp said they used the app for casual sex, and less than a third said they were looking for a ificant other. Is that really true?
At the time of its initiation, this study was the first prospective study of predictors of hooking up. To our knowledge, this study provides the first prospective investigation of the hypothesized predictors of penetrative sex hookups i. The of hours spent using all seven media types were summed to create a composite media exposure score.
This prospective de permitted evaluation of two sets of hypotheses:. Sexual behavior may involve risk for physical and mental health. In a cross-sectional study of college students, Grello et al. Finally, mass media e.
Distress was used as a predictor of T2 hookups and as a consequence of T1 hookup transition. Pre-college hookup patterns, peak intoxication level, and situational triggers for hookups were consistent predictors of College AK hookups and vaginal sex hookup behavior and of hookup partners in the first semester of college.
Unlike cross-sectional studies e. As a result, hooking up may lead to short-term psychological distress for women. A total of first-semester college students females, 31 males completed an anonymous survey early in their first semester; the survey assessed 18 potential predictors of hooking up that were identified from theory and past research.
The initial survey was administered in mid-to-late September T1 ; the follow-up survey was administered 10 weeks later, during the last two weeks of the semester T2. Predictor variables were assessed at T1, and criterion variables were assessed at T2. Desire to be carefree in college was assessed with seven items e.
Predictors and consequences of sexual “hookups” among college students: a short-term prospective study
We also predicted interactions between gender and five predictors, such that the likelihood of T2 hookup behavior would be increased for females but not males who reported greater distress, lower self-esteem, greater career-mindedness, greater desire to be carefree in college, and greater parental discouragement of relationships. They argued that young women who strive for self-sufficiency and independence prefer hookups to traditional committed relationships because hookups provide sexual interaction with interesting or attractive men without compromising their freedom or independence.
Social norms were assessed following published procedures Carey et al. A positive value indicates that the typical same-sex student is perceived to be more permissive than the participant. Implications for education and intervention as well as suggestions for future research are discussed. In contrast, females would be expected to eschew sexual encounters devoid of emotional intimacy in order to find a mate who invests more in the relationship. On average, females reported 2.
This perspective suggests that gender should be an important predictor of hookup behavior; that is, because males accrue advantages from having multiple partners, they should be more likely to engage in hookups. Thus, when students arrived on campus T1we assessed pre-college hookup behavior and hypothesized predictors of future hookups; at the end of their first semester T2we assessed collegiate hookup behavior and psychological consequences.
In addition, the immediate social environment of the college campus represented by social norms and the larger cultural context, transmitted through mass mediawould also be expected to shape sexual behavior. A positive value indicates that the student overestimated the prevalence of hooking up. Hookups might also be expected to have mental health consequences, which are easier to investigate.
Situational triggers for oral vaginal sex hookups were assessed with three items adapted from Apostolopoulos et al. The sample was representative of the typical psychology class from which they were recruited. Learn More. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg scale. Social-cognitive theory Bandura, provides a College AK hookups general framework for understanding how the social environment shapes behavior.
At least four person variables might be expected to influence hookup behavior: religiosity, gender, career-mindedness, and the desire to be carefree. Several parental factors may influence hookups. Paul et al.
Only gender was used as a predictor. The temporal sequence of the hookups and distress remains unclear due to the use of a cross-sectional de. The dichotomous outcome variable T2 oral vaginal sex hookup behavior i. Distress increased for women, but not for men, as the of partners increased. Perceived parental attitudes toward hooking up were assessed with items adapted from Daugherty and Burger Parental marital status was assessed by asking students if their biological parents were currently married.
In the only study to College AK hookups self-esteem related to hooking up in college students, Paul et al. Little research has been done on hookups and most existing research is cross-sectional and has not investigated the antecedents or consequences of hookups. Parental discouragement of relationships was assessed with two items deed to capture this construct: a my parents encourage me to avoid getting too serious in romantic relationships while I am young, and b my parents would be disappointed if I got engaged or married while I was still in college.
These responses also provided the pre-college of oral vaginal sex hookup partners. Sexual history i. After receiving an overview of the study, students provided written consent and completed a self-administered, anonymous survey in small groups with ample privacy. Therefore, we explored the utility of a wide variety of hypothesized predictors of hookup behaviors in college students. Unintended pregnancies are relatively rare on most college campuses Scholly et al.
Females were more likely than males to report a negative reaction to hookups over the past year, and females were less likely than males to report a positive reaction. Physical health consequences include unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections STIsand sexual assault. Challenges limiting such College AK hookups include the relatively low base rates of some outcomes, the high cost and perceived invasiveness of biological testing, and the stigma and legal issues associated with sexual assault. Descriptive information i.
Similar to the qualitative findings from SteppGlenn and Marquardt suggested that the desire to be carefree in college may motivate hookup behavior, especially for high-achieving adolescent females. Popular books e. This approach recognizes the powerful role that modeling and vicarious learning play in the formation of behavior patterns.
Another recent cross-sectional study revealed that male and female college students have different emotional reactions to hookups Owen et al. To assess descriptive norms at T1, students estimated the percentage of male and female freshmen who had engaged in oral and vaginal sex with a casual partner before college.
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Students enrolled in an Introductory Psychology course responded to electronically-posted invitations to participate in a study of the health behaviors and interpersonal relationships of young adults. Triandis suggested that attitudes and norms influence behavioral intentionswhich—along with situational factors and prior experience with a behavior—determine whether an individual will engage in a future sexual behavior.
In summary, based on several social-cognitive theories, as well as empirical evidence, we identified a large of plausible predictors of hookup College AK hookups, from the individual to the sociocultural level. Sociocultural perspectives might challenge this view, and suggest that, because gender roles are socially constructed, differences between men and women should diminish as social norms change to be more egalitarian.
Evolutionary theories e. Self-esteem was used as a predictor of T2 hookups and as a consequence of T1 hookup transition. Peak intoxication level was assessed using peak blood alcohol content BAC in the past month. Potential predictors of sexual hookups have been suggested by both theory and research.
Moreover, Owen et al. We predicted that females who transitioned from no penetrative sex hookups at study entry to a penetrative sex hookup by the end of their first semester would report increased distress and decreased self-esteem. Penetrative sex hookups increased psychological distress for females, but not for males.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to conduct an initial evaluation of the strength of these hypothesized predictors in order to improve our conceptual understanding of, and future research on, hookup behavior. Social norms have also been implicated as possible determinants of sexual hookups.
In addition to these theoretical frameworks, prior qualitative and quantitative research has identified other potential predictors of hookups, comprising person characteristics, College AK hookups influences, and situational social-cultural factors. We focused on penetrative sex i. As noted earlier, gender is likely to influence hookup behavior. Media exposure was assessed using seven items asking participants how many hours they spend in a typical week 1 watching television, 2 listening to music, 3 watching music videos, 4 reading popular magazines, 5 watching movies, 6 using social networking websites, and 7 reading campus newspapers.
The purposes of this study were: 1 to explore a range of possible predictors of sexual hookups as suggested by theory and research and 2 to investigate the short-term psychological consequences of hooking up in college students.
At the end of their first semester, students again responded to a survey and provided data on their oral and vaginal sex hookup behavior occurrence and of partnersdistress, and self-esteem.
Students also rated the extent to which a typical male and female freshman would agree with those statements. Based on interviews with high-achieving female college and high school students, Stepp suggests that, for some females, career-mindedness i. In contrast, men who had engaged in casual sex had lower levels of distress than virgins or men who had engaged in sex with only romantic partners. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Alcohol use, social norms, and exposure to media messages about sexuality emerge as likely influences on hookups.
Participants indicated the of standard drinks i.